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King Louis XI of France — had the first known indoor billiard table. By , the thin butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion which itself was originally only there as a preventative method to stop balls from rolling off , but players increasingly preferred it for other shots as well.
The footless, straight cue as it is known today was finally developed by about Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them.
The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game.
After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment.
The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era.
The early balls were made from wood and clay , but the rich preferred to use ivory. Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch" related to the croquet hoop , "port" a different hoop and "king" a pin or skittle near the arch in the s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions and eventually on pockets cut into them , were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards.
The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category — what most non- Commonwealth and non-US speakers mean by the word billiards.
These games, which once completely dominated the cue sports world but have declined markedly in many areas over the last few generations, are games played with three or sometimes four balls, on a table without holes and without obstructions or targets in most cases , in which the goal is generally to strike one object ball with a cue ball , then have the cue ball rebound off of one or more of the cushions and strike a second object ball.
Variations include straight rail , balkline , one-cushion , three-cushion , five-pins , and four-ball , among others.
Over time, a type of obstacle returned, originally as a hazard and later as a target, in the form of pockets , or holes partly cut into the table bed and partly into the cushions, leading to the rise of pocket billiards , including "pool" games such as eight-ball, nine-ball, straight pool and one-pocket ; Russian pyramid ; snooker ; English billiards and others.
In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, but between and pool and billiards became very popular. Players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards.
This was mainly due to the fact that it was a popular pastime for troops to take their minds off from battle. However, by the end of World War II pool and billiards began to die down once again.
It was not until when the film "The Hustler" came out that sparked a new interest in the game. Now the game is generally a well-known game and has many players of all different skill levels.
There are few more cheerful sights, when the evenings are long, and the weather dull, than a handsome, well-lighted billiard room, with the smooth, green surface of the billiard table; the ivory balls flying noiselessly here and there, or clicking musically together.
The games with regulated international professional competition, if not others, have been referred to as "sports" or "sporting" events, not simply "games", since at the latest.
Snooker, though technically a pocket billiards variant and closely related in its equipment and origin to the game of English billiards, is a professional sport organized at the international level, and its rules bear little resemblance to those of modern pool, pyramid and other such games.
A "Billiards" category encompassing pool, snooker and carom was featured in the World Games , held in Duisburg , Germany, and the Asian Games also saw the introduction of a "Cue sports" category.
In Russian pyramid there are sixteen balls, as in pool, but fifteen are white and numbered, and the cue ball is usually red. Carom billiards balls are larger than pool balls, having a diameter of Snooker balls are smaller than American-style pool balls with a diameter of English billiard balls are the same size as snooker balls and come in sets of three balls two cue balls and a red, an object ball.
Other games, such as bumper pool , have custom ball sets. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite , celluloid , crystallite , ivory , plastic, steel and wood.
The dominant material from until the early 20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns, but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters.
The first viable substitute was celluloid , invented by John Wesley Hyatt in , but the material was volatile, sometimes exploding during manufacture, and was highly flammable.
There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables. Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide. Most pool tables are known as 7-, 8-, or 9-footers, referring to the length of the table's long side.
Full-size snooker and English billiard tables are 12 feet 3. Pool halls tend to have 9-foot 2. Pubs will typically use 7-foot 2. Ten-foot tables remain the standard size for carom billiard games.
The slates on modern carom tables are usually heated to stave off moisture and provide a consistent playing surface.
The length of the pool table will typically be a function of space, with many homeowners purchasing an 8-foot 2. Full-size pool tables are 4.
High-quality tables have a bed made of thick slate, in three pieces to prevent warping and changes due to temperature and humidity.
Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. Pocket billiards tables of all types normally have six pockets, three on each side four corner pockets, and two side or middle pockets.
Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. Bar or tavern tables, which get a lot of play, use "slower", more durable cloth.
The cloth used in upscale pool and snooker halls and home billiard rooms is "faster" i. Snooker cloth traditionally has a nap consistent fiber directionality and balls behave differently when rolling against versus along with the nap.
The cloth of the billiard table has traditionally been green, reflecting its origin originally the grass of ancestral lawn games , and has been so colored since at least the 16th century, but it is also produced in other colors such as red and blue.
A rack is the name given to a frame usually wood, plastic or aluminium used to organize billiard balls at the beginning of a game. This is traditionally triangular in shape, but varies with the type of billiards played.
There are two main types of racks; the more common triangular shape which is used for eight-ball and straight pool and the diamond-shaped rack used for nine-ball.
There are several other types of less common rack types that are also used, based on a "template" to hold the billiard balls tightly together. Most commonly it is a thin plastic sheet with diamond-shaped cut-outs that hold the balls that is placed on the table with the balls set on top of the rack.
The rack is used to set up the "break" and removed before the "break shot" occurs. Billiards games are mostly played with a stick known as a cue.
A cue is usually either a one piece tapered stick or a two piece stick divided in the middle by a joint of metal or phenolic resin.
High quality cues are generally two pieces and are made of a hardwood, generally maple for billiards and ash for snooker. The butt end of the cue is of larger circumference and is intended to be gripped by a player's hand.
The shaft of the cue is of smaller circumference, usually tapering to an 0. The tip, in conjunction with chalk, can be used to impart spin to the cue ball when it is not hit in its center.
Cheap cues are generally made of pine, low-grade maple and formerly often of ramin , which is now endangered , or other low-quality wood, with inferior plastic ferrules.
A quality cue can be expensive and may be made of exotic woods and other expensive materials which are artfully inlaid in decorative patterns.
Many modern cues are also made, like golf clubs , with high-tech materials such as woven graphite. Skilled players may use more than one cue during a game, including a separate cue often with a hard phenolic resin tip for the opening break shot and another, shorter cue with a special tip for jump shots.
The mechanical bridge, sometimes called a "rake", "crutch", "bridge stick" or simply "bridge", and in the UK a "rest", is used to extend a player's reach on a shot where the cue ball is too far away for normal hand bridging.
It consists of a stick with a grooved metal or plastic head which the cue slides on. Many amateurs refuse to use the mechanical bridge based on the perception that to do so is unmanly or cheating.
Some players, especially current or former snooker players, use a screw-on cue butt extension instead of or in addition to the mechanical bridge.
Bridge head design is varied, and not all designs especially those with cue shaft-enclosing rings, or wheels on the bottom of the head , are broadly tournament-approved.
Chalk is applied to the tip of the cue stick , ideally before every shot, to increase the tip's friction coefficient so that when it impacts the cue ball on a non-center hit, no miscue unintentional slippage between the cue tip and the struck ball occurs.
Chalk is an important element to make good shots in pool or snooker. Cue tip chalk is not actually the substance typically referred to as " chalk " generally calcium carbonate , but any of several proprietary compounds, with a silicate base.
It was around the time of the Industrial Revolution that newer compounds formed that provided better grip for the ball.
This is when the English began to experiment with side spin or applying curl to the ball. This was shortly introduced to the American players and is how the term "putting English on the ball" came to be.
Some brands of hand chalk actually are made of compressed talc. Tip chalk is not used for this purpose because it is abrasive, hand-staining and difficult to apply.
Many players prefer a slick pool glove over hand chalk or talc because of the messiness of these powders; buildup of particles on the cloth will affect ball behavior and necessitate more-frequent cloth cleaning.
Cue tip chalk invented in its modern form by straight rail billiard pro William A. Spinks and chemist William Hoskins in   is made by crushing silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite  aluminium oxide ,   into a powder.
High humidity can also impair the effectiveness of chalk. Harder, drier compounds are generally considered superior by most players.
The main carom billiards games are straight rail , balkline and three cushion billiards. All are played on a pocketless table with three balls; two cue balls and one object ball.
In all, players shoot a cue ball so that it makes contact with the opponent's cue ball as well as the object ball.
Others of multinational interest are four-ball and five-pins. The most globally popular of the large variety of pocket games are Pool and snooker. A third, English billiards , has some features of carom billiards.
English billiards used to be one of the two most-competitive cue sports along with the carom game balkline, at the turn of the 20th century and is still enjoyed today in Commonwealth countries.
Another pocket game, Russian pyramid and its variants like kaisa are popular in the former Eastern bloc. In straight rail, a player scores a point and may continue shooting each time his cue ball makes contact with both other balls.
Some of the best players of straight billiards developed the skill to gather the balls in a corner or along the same rail for the purpose of playing a series of nurse shots to score a seemingly limitless number of points.
The first straight rail professional tournament was held in where Jacob Schaefer Sr. With the balls repetitively hit and barely moving in endless "nursing", there was little for the fans to watch.
In light of these skill developments in straight rail, the game of balkline soon developed to make it impossible for a player to keep the balls gathered in one part of the table for long, greatly limiting the effectiveness of nurse shots.
A balkline is a line parallel to one end of a billiards table. In the game of balkline, the players have to drive at least one object ball past a balkline parallel to each rail after a specified number of points have been scored.
Another solution was to require a player's cue ball to make contact with the rail cushions in the process of contacting the other balls.
This in turn saw the three-cushion version emerge, where the cue ball must make three separate cushion contacts during a shot. This is difficult enough that even the best players can only manage to average one to two points per turn.
This is sometimes described as "hardest to learn" and "require most skill" of all billiards. There are many variations of games played on a standard pool table.
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